Estimated Breeding Value (EBV)
Estimated Breeding Value (EBV) is an estimate of the genes value that a parent may transfer to its offspring for a specific trait. It provides a way to choose between animals when breeding for a specific trait.
The average performance of progeny from a high-ranking animal will be better than that from a lower ranking animal for the trait. Scientifically, it is an estimated value of an animal's total additive genetic effects.
It is estimated based on an animal's pedigree, own performance and that of its relatives (when known).
Expected Progeny Difference (EPD)
Expected Progeny Difference (EPD) is an evaluation of an animal's genetic value presented as a prediction of its offspring's performance. It is half of the EBV as only half of the genes of a parent transfer to its offspring.
Molecular Breeding Value (MBV)
Molecular Breeding Value (MBV) is just like an EBV, but it is estimated solely based on the animal's DNA markers using genomic prediction equations.
Molecular Expected Progeny Difference (mEPD) or Genomic Expected Progeny Difference (gEPD)
Molecular Expected Progeny Difference (mEPD) or gEPD is just like an EPD but is calculated using the MBV. It is half of the MBV, which is estimated solely based on the animal's DNA markers using genomic prediction equations.
Genomic Enhanced Expected Progeny Difference (geEPD or GE-EPD)
Genomic Enhanced Expected Progeny Difference (geEPD or GE-EPD) is calculated by blending an animal's MBV with its EBV, so it uses DNA markers, an animal's pedigree, performance, and performance of its relatives for the trait.
As it uses more information on the animal it is expected to be more accurate. However, we do not always have all of the information required for these calculations, especially for commercial cattle.
Accuracy (Acc) is a measure of the confidence of an estimate. For example, accuracy of a mEPD is the correlation between the estimated mEPD and the animal's unknown true EPD. The more data available for an animal, for example when a bull has many progeny, the more accurate the estimate is.
Genomic breed composition (gBC)
Composition or fraction of various breeds in an animal and it is predicted based on DNA markers.
Genomic retained heterozygosity (gRH)
Proportion of genome or genes due to crossbreeding and it is predicted based on gBC.
Multiple trait selection index
A single index value that is constructed by weighting economic importance and relationships of genetic merit or gEPDs of multiple traits that define the profitability.
There are different types of indexes depending on breeding objectives (e.g. heifer profitability index; feedlot profitability index).